Civil Society under Martial Rule: Comparing the state-civil society nexus under the rule of two dictators in Pakistan

  • Hina Khan
  • Moiz Khan

Abstract

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Contemporary discourse on civil society asserts democracy as a precondition for a successful working of civil society and a vibrant civil society for a smooth working of democracy. Yet there have been exceptions. On one hand some predominantly authoritarian regimes around the world are said to have harbored vibrant civil societies such as some countries of East Asia and Latin America. In this context, this paper overviews the growth and development of civil society in Pakistan during the rule of two military dictators in Pakistan viz. Ayub Khan (1958-1969) and Zia-ul-Haq (1977-1988) in the light of state-civil society models of conflict and coordination. It further seeks to explore: How those dictators treated the civil society in Pakistan? What was the response of civil society towards the dictatorial rule? And can we draw some parallels in the working of this nexus during the two eras?

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Published
2019-12-21
How to Cite
Khan, H., & Khan, M. (2019). Civil Society under Martial Rule: Comparing the state-civil society nexus under the rule of two dictators in Pakistan. Journal of History and Social Sciences, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.46422/jhss.v7i2.60
Section
Articles