Federal Cabinet of Pakistan
Composition and Stratification, 1988-1999
AbstractAbstract Views: 57
The paper focuses on the Federal cabinet in two perspectives i.e. formation and stratification of the federal cabinet of Pakistan from the year 1988 to 1999. This period observed four elected governments with coalition set ups. Two cabinets were led by Ms. Benazir Bhutto, which were dominantly coalition teams. Two other cabinets were led by Mr. Nawaz Sharif, whose first cabinet was set up in coalition but the second one was largely a single-party cabinet, though it included two ministers from ANP and MQM each. Although the state machinery included a number of Ministers of State and advisers but the study deals with composition and stratification of full cabinet ministers who are considered permanent members of the Cabinet in parliamentary system. Though Ministers of State and Advisers, sometimes, play prominent role in decision-making but they do not enjoy full-time membership status of the cabinet and theoretically, cabinet is considered as the decision-making body in parliamentary institution. Stratification includes study of the appointment criteria and working of the Inner cabinet besides a brief account of social background of the Ministers, who served the state during period under study.
Ahmad, Ghafoor , Wazir-i-Azam Benazir Bhutto: Namzadgi se Bartarfi Tuk (Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto: From Appointment to Dismissal) (Lahore: Iqra Enterprisers, 1995)
Ahmad, Ghafoor, Nawaz Sharif Ka Pehla Dor-i-Hakumat (Urdu) (First Regime of Nawaz Sharif) (Lahore: Iqra Interprisers, 1997)
Ahmed, Mushtaq Benazir: Politics of Power (Karachi: Royal Book Company, 2005)
Akhund, Iqbal, Trial and Error: The Advent and Eclipse of Benazir Bhutto (Karachi: OUP 2000)
Aziz, Sartaj, Between Dreams and Realities: Some Milestones in Pakistan’s History, (Karachi: OUP, 2009)
Bhutto, Benazir, Reconciliation: Islam, Democracy and the West (London: ACBS Company, 2008)
Bray, John, “Pakistan at 50: A State in Decline,” International Affairs Vol. 73, No. 2 (April 1997)
Daily Times, 4 November 2015.
Dawn (Karachi), December 3, 1988
Dawn, 28 October 2017
Dawn, 4 February 1997
Durani, Asad , Pakistan Adrift: Navigating Troubled Waters (U.K: C. Hurst& Co, 2018)
First Cabinet of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, Ministries of the Federal Government, Official Record prepared by the Cabinet Wing, National Documentation Centre, Islamabad.
First Cabinet of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, Ministries of the Federal Government, Official Record prepared by the Cabinet Wing, National Documentation Centre, Islamabad
Hussain, Mushahid and Akmal Hussain, Pakistan: Problems of Governance (Lahore: Vanguard Books, 1993)
Hussain, Syeda Abida, Power Failure: The Political Odyssey of a Pakistani Woman (Karachi: OUP, 2015)
Inayatullah, Pakistan Politics: A Personal View (Lahore: Ferozesons Pvt. Ltd., 1993)
Jabbar, Javed , “But, Prime Minister...” A Political Memoir (Karachi: Paramount Books, 2021)
Kalasra, Rauf, Aik Siyasat Kai Kahanian (One Politics Many Stories), (Lahore: Dost Publications, 2015)
Khan, Gohar Ayub, Glimpses into the Corridors of Power (Karachi: OUP, 2007)
Kochanek, S.A. ‘Ethnic Conflict and the Politicization of Business,” Pakistan in 1995 ed. C.H. Kennedy and R.B. Rais (Boulder Co: Westview Press, 1995
Laporte, Robert Jr., “Pakistan in 1996: Starting Out Again,” Asian Survey Vol. 37, No. 2 (Feb 1997)
Lodhi, Maliha and Zahid Hussain, “Power Play in Islamabad”, News line, Karachi, June 1992.
Mukhtar, Shahid, Quaid-i-Azam se Ghulam Ishaq Khan Tuk (Urdu) (From Quaid-i-Azam to Ghulam Ishaq) (Lahore: Shahid Publications, 1993)
Nawaz, Shuja, Crossed Swords: Pakistan Its Army and the Wars Within (Karachi OUP, 2008)
Rizvi, Hasan Askari, “Pakistan in 1998: The Polity under Pressures” Asian Survey Vol. 39 No. I (Jan – Feb 1999): 178 (177-184)
Second Cabinet of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, Ministries of the Federal Government, Official Record prepared by the Cabinet Wing, National Documentation Centre, Islamabad.
Second Cabinet of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, Ministries of the Federal Government, Official Record prepared by the Cabinet Wing, National Documentation Centre, Islamabad
Shafqat, Saeed, “Pakistan under Benazir Bhutto,” Asian Survey, Vol. 36, No. 7 (July 1996)
Talbot, Ian, Pakistan: A New History, (Karachi: OUP, 2013
Waseem, Mohammad, “Pakistan’s Lingering Crises of Dyarchy,” Asian Survey Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 1992)
Weiss, Anita M., “Benazir Bhutto and the Future of Women in Pakistan,” Asian Survey Vol. 30, No. 5 (May 1990) (433-445).
Wilder, Andrew R., “Changing Patterns of Punjab Politics in Pakistan: National Assembly Election Results, 1988 and 1993” Asian survey, Vol. 35, No. 4 (April 1995)
Y, Vyacheslav. Belokrenitsky and Vladimir N. Moskalenko, A Political History of Pakistan, 1947 2007 (Karachi: OUP, 2013)Yasmeen, Samina, “Democracy in Pakistan: The Third Dismissal” Asian Survey, V. 34, No. 6 (June 1994)
Ziring, Lawrence, “Pakistan in 1990: the fall of Benazir Bhutto,” Asian Survey, Vol.31 Issue 2 (Feb. 1991)
Ziring, Lawrence, Pakistan in the Twentieth Century: A Political History, (Karachi: OUP, 1999)
Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of History and Social Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0)