Arab World in the Twentieth Century

Major Developments and Their Impacts

  • Nizar Ali Hunzai Department of History, International Islamic University Islamabad


Abstract Views: 8

Twentieth century is the century of the enormous changes in the world historical timeline from the bloodletting world wars, nuclear proliferation, technological advancement, great depression, formation of world power blocks, capitalism, fascism, and communism to the rise of terrorism. On the other hand, the discovery of the hidden wealth of fossil fuels beneath the sandy deserts of the Arabian peninsula history of entire Middle East changed and  the new destiny of the history was determined meanwhile new political events in the global north and global south formulated a new historical time line in the Arab countries. From the deterioration of the Ottomans, emergence of Zionist movement, formation of the new Jewish state – Israel in the heart of the Muslim home land, the European colonization and de-colonization, Suez canal crisis, the Arab Israel wars and the conflict of Palestine are the major historical events of the twentieth century Arab world. The objective of this paper is to assess the significance of the historical events of the twentieth century in the Arabian Peninsula in order to highlight their impacts on the ongoing issues of the Middle East such as the Palestine issue, the Kurdish issue and Islamic militancy in the Middle East Syrian conflict etc.

Keywords: Zionism, Suez Canal crisis, Arab Israel war, cold war, fascism, great depression, power blogs, Balkans crisis, young Turks, genocide, world wars, gulf countries, Middle East, revolution, rebellions, the clash of civilization, Zionism, genocide, ottoman empire.


Ardiç, Nurullah. "Genealogy Or Asabiyya? Ibn Khaldun Between Arab Nationalism And The Ottoman Caliphate." Journal Of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 71, No. 2, October 2012: 315-324 .

Assets Publishing Service The Govt Of Uk. Assets Publishing Service . 1 1, 2001. Https://Assets.Publishing.Service.Gov.Uk/Government/Uploads/System/Uploads/Attachment_Data/File/16871/Arab_World_Introduction_Cultural_Appreciation_Booklet.Pdf (Accessed 2 18, 2023).

Barany, Zoltan. " Yemen’s Armies From Ottoman Rule To Unification." Center For Strategic And International Studies (Csis, 2016: 10.

Duateart, Donald. The Ottoman Empire . Newyork : Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Fanani, Ahmed Fuad. "The Ottoman Empier It Rise And Fall And Collapse ." Mahasiswa Pascasarjana Flinders University, Adelaide-Australia;, 2011: 17.

Fukiyama, Francis. The End Of History And The Last Man. America: Penguin Books, 1992.

Green, Michaelj. A Global History Of 20th Century. London: Center For Strategic And International Studies , 2005.

Hall, Richard C. 1914-1918-Online. International Encyclopedia Of The First World War Is An International, English-Language Online Encyclopedia Of The First World War. 10 8, 2014. Https://Encyclopedia.1914-1918-Online.Net/Pdf/1914-1918-Online-Balkan_Wars_1912-1913-2014-10-08.Pdf (Accessed 3 16, 2023).

Jhonson, Robert. "“The Decline Of The Ottoman Empire." History Review Research Laibrary , Sep 2005: 52.

Knauerhase, Ramon. "Saudi Arabia: A Brief History." Current History, Vol. 68, No. 402, The Middle East, 1975, 1975: 74-79.

Lewis, Bernard. "Some Reflections On The Decline Of The Ottoman Empire." Studia Islamica, 1980: 27-36.

Medlicott, W. N. " The Emergence Of Modern Turkey By Bernard Lewis." In The Emergence Of Modern Turkey By Bernard Lewis, By W. N. Medlicott, 612-613. London: Bulletin Of The School Of Oriental And African Studies, University Of London, Vol. 25, No. 1/3 (1962), Pp. 612-613, 1962.

Narak, D.R. Ddce Utkal University. 1 1, 2010. Https://Ddceutkal.Ac.In/Syllabus/Ma_History/Paper_04.Pdf (Accessed 3 30, 2023).

Nayak, Dr. P.R. Twentieth Century Of World (1900-1945). 1 1, 2010.

Qadir1, Abdul. "Arab Revolt Of 1916." Journal Of Education & Humanities Research‖ Issn: 2415-2366 Institute Of Education And Research (Ier), Uob, Quetta Pakistan Vol.3.No 1, 2017, 2017: 9.

Rasuly-Paleczek, Gabriele. Migration And Its Impact On Armenia A Feild Practice. 2017: Department For Social And Cultural Anthropology University Of Vienna , Vienna .

Robert, Jhonson. "The Decline Of The Ottoman Empire ." History Review Research Laibrary, 2005: 52.

Shlaim, Avi. "Israel Between East And West, 1948-56." International Journal Of Middle East Studies, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2004: 657-673 .

Smith, Charles D. "Palestine And The Arab-Israeli Conflict: 1948–." © Arab-Israeli Relations, 1917-1970: The Middle East Online, Series 1, Cengage Learning, 2005, 2005: 5.

Teach Middle East . 1 1, 2020. Https://Teachmideast.Org/Articles/Timeline-Of-The-Middle-East-In-The-20th-Century/ (Accessed 3 1, 2023).

The Geography Of The Arabian Peninsula Full Text With Pictures.Pdf. 3 1, 2021. Https://Www.Neshaminy.Org/Cms/Lib6/Pa01000466/Centricity/Domain/439/Chapter (Accessed 2 17, 2023).

Union, American Civil Liberties. American Civil Liberties Union . 3 1, 2012. Https://Www.Aclu.Org/Sites/Default/Files/Field_Document/Aclurm045498.Pdf (Accessed 3 13, 2023).

Wigen, Einar. "Ottoman Concepts Of Empire." Wigen, Einar. “Ottoman Concepts Of Empire.” Contributions To The History Of Concepts 8, No. 1 (2013): 44–66. Http://Www.Jstor.Org/Stable/43610931., 2012: 70.

World Atlas . 2 3, 2013. Https://Www.Worldatlas.Com/Articles/The-Largest-Countries-In-The-Middle-East.Html (Accessed 3 17, 2023).

Zahlan, Rosemarie Said. "The Origins Of The United Arab Emarates ." British Library Cataloguing In Publication Data , 1978: 20.

How to Cite
Hunzai, N. A. (2024). Arab World in the Twentieth Century: Major Developments and Their Impacts. Journal of History and Social Sciences, 14(2), 257-269.